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How Pulmonary Hypertension Can Affect Your Mental Health

Posted on May 24, 2021
Medically reviewed by
Sarah Gray, Psy.D.
Article written by
Anika Brahmbhatt

Because the physical impact of pulmonary hypertension (PH) can be all-consuming, you may be dealing with psychological effects of the condition that you aren’t even aware of, but which you should definitely address so you can improve your quality of life.

According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), people with chronic conditions are more likely to develop symptoms of depression than those who are not chronically ill. This also works the other way around: People with depression are at an increased risk of developing a chronic illness compared to those who are not depressed.

Although some people with pulmonary hypertension may veer away from treating mental health conditions because they feel it might take their attention away from PH care, the reality is that the opposite is true. If you’re suffering from depressive symptoms, anxiety, or mood disorders, treating them with medication such as antidepressants, psychotherapy (also called “talk therapy"), “or a combination of the two also may help improve the physical symptoms of a chronic illness or reduce the risk of future problems,” NIMH says.

Your health care provider can work together with mental health professionals, such as experts in psychology or psychiatry, to ensure that you stay both mentally and physically healthy.

Anxiety is also common in people with chronic conditions, particularly as they deal with the unknowns of what might happen as a result of their disease. This can lead to associated conditions as well. For instance, sleep issues, including insomnia as well as extreme oversleeping, have been found to be associated with a lower health-related quality of life in people who have chronic conditions.

“Anyone dealing with chronic illness of any kind can really come up against challenges, particularly when there is no cure, or there’s uncertainty in the progression of the illness,” said Dr. Sarah Gray, a pain psychologist with Integrative Psychology in Arlington, Massachusetts, and an instructor of psychology at Harvard Medical School.

Members of myPHteam often talk about the effects of pulmonary hypertension on their mental health. “I'm feeling really depressed today, and all alone with my illness.” said one member.

Understanding the Link Between PH and Mental Health

There are several reasons why having a chronic health condition may put people at a higher risk of mental health difficulties, according to Mental Health America. For example, you might feel isolated because of spending long periods of time in the hospital, or you’re not as mobile as you used to be. In addition, you may spend excessive amounts of time worrying about your condition, you might suffer inflammation in the long-term because of the stress, and you may be going through chemical and hormonal changes.

“Feeling stressed; had to deal with a lot of pain in my hip yesterday,” said one myPHteam member. “I’m anxious about my biopsy tomorrow.”

In some cases, you may feel depressed or anxious because you aren’t getting the right medical care. Research published in 2011 found that people who felt stigmatized by health care workers had a decreased quality of life, at least in part because they accessed health care services less frequently than people who did not internalize stigma and anticipate a negative response.

This situation can prevent some people from seeking care for their mental health conditions, Dr. Gray noted. “Unfortunately, sometimes there can still be a stigma around seeking help for mental health concerns. Thankfully, that's changing and continues to improve, but that can still exist.”

A 2013 study found that it was common for people with pulmonary hypertension to also have anxiety and depression. The authors stated that “taking into account that the manifestation of [mental disorders] was highly correlated with a reduced quality of life, we can conclude that there is still a lack of psychosocial support for PH patients.”

Recognize Your Symptoms

In some cases, you may not recognize that you’re dealing with depression or anxiety because those feelings came on slowly over time, and you didn’t notice how strong they became. Or perhaps you have gotten so accustomed to being blue or stressed that you assumed this was just a way of life now. But recognizing when you may actually have a condition that requires a professional evaluation is important.

“In my experience, and working with so many patients at different phases and stages, the type of stress that comes up early evolves over time,” Dr. Gray said. “Often, people along the way will find ways to cope, to draw on that inner strength that's there, and hopefully get linked in with a number of supports, but the stressors change over time. And that requires ongoing support.”

Symptoms of depression may include:

  • Sadness
  • Feelings of worthlessness or hopelessness
  • Guilt
  • Loss of interest in things or people you typically enjoy
  • Changes in sleep, nutrition, or energy levels
  • Difficulty with concentration or cognition
  • Agitated or slow movements
  • Suicidal thoughts

Common symptoms of anxiety can include:

  • Nervousness or agitation
  • Feeling a sense of upcoming doom
  • Heart palpitations, rapid breathing, or sweating
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Gastrointestinal (GI) issues
  • Trouble focusing

If you are experiencing these types of feelings, talk to your health care team or contact a mental health provider for help.

Consider Lifestyle Adjustments

Your health care team will make the determination about what type of treatment you should pursue. In addition to the management techniques that your physician recommends, you can also find other ways of treating depression and anxiety with lifestyle changes and therapies that go beyond medication.

Dr. Gray recommends such tools as cognitive behavioral therapy and biofeedback for coping with the many unknowns inherent to having a chronic disease.

She also works directly with people to identify the specific stressors that may be troubling them. “For instance, if there's a family member who is bringing up some conflict and the patient finds it particularly difficult to navigate setting boundaries with a certain person, then we might work on concrete, specific tools to address any troublesome interactions there,” she said.

It’s essential that you remain on your treatment regimen for pulmonary hypertension as you treat your mental health condition, while also pursuing lifestyle modifications. One 2020 study found that for older adults with multiple chronic conditions, maintenance behaviors — such as physical activity and treatment adherence — were the most critical components of self-care to combat depression. The researchers also found that “even mild [depression] symptoms can be associated with poor self-care maintenance,” emphasizing how important it is for people with chronic conditions to be screened for depression of any severity.

In addition, make sure you have a supportive team around you, which can help when dealing with pulmonary hypertension. A 2020 study found that people with certain chronic conditions reported family as the most important psychosocial resource they had. Positive relationships with other people “are assumed to contribute to physical and mental health either directly by meeting basic human needs, or through enhancement of coping performance by buffering stress,” the study authors noted.

Remember that your health condition may have an effect on every area of your life, Dr. Gray said. “Relationships, activities that one may enjoy — they may be impacted by the chronic illness and the symptoms,” she noted. “Your sense of self can be affected by the change in activities and relationships, so that in and of itself can really, validly lead to feelings of loss and worry.”

As you may expect, some risk factors for developing mental health issues as well as for developing chronic illnesses are easier to modify than others, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). While stressful life circumstances, a history of trauma, and a lack of social support may be out of an individual’s control, diet, exercise, and drug use are among the “modifiable risk factors” the CDC identifies for reducing one’s risk of chronic disease.

You can also consider using mindfulness as part of your road to alleviating mental health issues.

Dr. Gray points out that “at its core, mindfulness is really approaching the present moment with openness, with curiosity, purposefully, and just being aware of what’s around you. It takes a lot of practice, repetition, and time — it’s really important for people to know it doesn't just happen.”

Find Your Team

Managing emotional changes can be difficult, but you do not have to do it alone. On myPHteam, the online social network for those living with PH and their loved ones, you will gain access to a social support group of people who understand what you are going through.

Are you experiencing emotional changes? How are you managing them? Share your journey in the comments below, or start a new conversation on myPHteam.

References

  1. May Is Mental Health Awareness Month — American Hospital Association
  2. Chronic Illness and Mental Health: Recognizing and Treating Depression — National Institute of Mental Health
  3. Emotional Dimensions of Chronic Disease — Western Journal of Medicine
  4. Association Between Sleep Problems and Health-Related Quality of Life in Canadian Adults With Chronic Diseases — Sleep Medicine
  5. Infographic: Chronic Health Conditions and Mental Health — Mental Health America
  6. The Impact of Stigma in Healthcare on People Living With Chronic Illnesses — Journal of Health Psychology
  7. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder) — Mayo Clinic
  8. Symptoms: Generalized Anxiety Disorder — Anxiety & Depression Association of America
  9. Depression and Self-Care in Older Adults With Multiple Chronic Conditions: A Multivariate Analysis — Journal of Advanced Nursing
  10. Coping Resources of Heart Failure Patients — A Comparison With Cancer Patients and Individuals Having No Chronic Condition Results From Esther Study — Heart & Lung
  11. Mental Health and Chronic Diseases — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  12. Anxiety and Depression Disorders in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension — Respiratory Research
Sarah Gray, Psy.D. is an Instructor of psychology at Harvard Medical School and a psychologist in the Department of Psychiatry at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn more about her here.
Anika Brahmbhatt is an undergraduate student at Boston University, where she is pursuing a dual degree in media science and psychology. Learn more about her here.

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